The shoulder is the most flexible joint in the body enabling a wide range of movements including, forward flexion, abduction, adduction, external rotation, internal rotation, and 360-degree circumduction.
Thus, the shoulder joint is considered the most insecure joint of the body but the support of ligaments, muscles and tendons function to provide the required stability.
Rotator cuff is the group of tendons in the shoulder joint providing support and enabling wider range of motion. Major injury to these tendons may result in tear of these tendons and the condition is called as rotator cuff tear.
A partial dislocation of the shoulder joint is termed as a subluxation. This means the ball has partially moved out of the glenoid as opposed to a dislocation, where the ball completely moves out of the glenoid.
The term SLAP (superior –labrum anterior-posterior) lesion or SLAP tear refers to an injury of the superior labrum of the shoulder. The labrum is a ring of fibrous cartilage surrounding the glenoid for stabilization of the shoulder joint.
Shoulder instability is a chronic condition that causes frequent dislocations of the shoulder joint.
Traumatic injury to the shoulder or overuse of shoulder (throwing, weightlifting) may cause labral tear.
Playing more overhead sports activities and repeated use of shoulder at workplace may lead to sliding of the upper arm bone, the ball portion, from the glenoid–the socket portion of the shoulder. The dislocation might be a partial dislocation (subluxation) or a complete dislocation causing pain and shoulder joint instability.
Acromioclavicular joint (AC joint) dislocation or shoulder separation is one of the most common injuries of the upper arm. It involves separation of the AC joint and injury to the ligaments that support the joint.
Little league shoulder is an injury to the growth plate of the upper arm bone in the shoulder joint of children.
Overuse and injury leads to fraying of the biceps tendon and eventual rupture.
A Biceps tendon rupture can either be partial, where it does not completely tear the tendon, or complete, where the biceps tendon completely splits in two and is torn away from the bone.
Shoulder injuries most commonly occur in athletes participating in sports such as swimming, tennis, pitching, and weightlifting. The injuries are caused due to the over usage or repetitive motion of the arms.
Clavicle fracture, also called broken collarbone is a very common sports injury seen in people who are involved in contact sports such as football and martial arts as well as impact sports such as motor racing.
Scapular fractures are uncommon but do occur and require a large amount of force to fracture. They are usually the result of intense trauma, such as a high-speed motor vehicle accident or a fall from height onto one’s back.
The glenoid is the socket that forms the ball and socket joint of the shoulder. Fractures of the glenoid are rare but can occur due to major trauma or during high-energy sports activities.
Shoulder injuries in baseball players are usually associated with pitching. While this overhand throwing activity can produce great speed and distance for the ball, when performed repeatedly, it can place a lot of stress on the shoulder.
The proximal humerus refers to the upper end of the arm bone, which forms the shoulder joint. Fractures of the proximal humerus are common in elderly individuals, suffering from osteoporosis.
Bankart surgery can be performed by a minimally invasive surgical technique called arthroscopy.
Shoulder Labrum Reconstruction is performed to repair a shoulder labral tear or injury. The labrum is a ring of fibrous cartilage surrounding the glenoid which helps in stabilizing the shoulder joint.
Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive diagnostic and surgical procedure performed for joint problems. Shoulder arthroscopy is performed using a pencil-sized instrument called an Arthroscope.
Biological resurfacing is a procedure to resurface the degenerated or arthritic articular surfaces of your shoulder joint with an allograft (biological graft).
Superior capsular reconstruction is a surgical procedure performed to restore shoulder stability in irreparable rotator cuff tears.
Glenohumeral stabilization or shoulder stabilization is a surgical procedure to treat chronic instability of shoulder joint.
A novel reconstruction technique has been designed to reconstruct the AC joint in an anatomic manner, known as anatomic reconstruction. Anatomic reconstruction of the AC joint ensures static and safe fixation and stable joint functions.