Knee

Knee Anatomy

The knee is a complex joint made up of different structures including bones, tendons, ligaments and muscles. They all work together to maintain normal function and provide stability to the knee during movement.

Having a well-functioning healthy knee is essential for our mobility and ability to participate in various activities. Understanding the anatomy of the knee enhances your ability to discuss and choose the right treatment procedure for knee problems with your doctor.

Conditions

Knee Pain

Knee pain is a common condition affecting individuals from different age groups. It not only affects movement but also impacts the quality of life of the individual.

Anterior Knee Pain

Anterior knee pain is a characterized by a chronic pain over the front and center of the knee joint.  It is common in athletes, active adolescents (especially girls) and overweight individuals.

Runner’s Knee

Runner's knee, also called patellofemoral pain syndrome refers to pain under and around your kneecap.

Jumper’s Knee

Jumper’s knee, also known as “patellar tendinitis" is an inflammation of the patellar tendon that connects your kneecap (patella) to your shinbone.

Iliotibial Band Syndrome

Iliotibial band syndrome is an overuse injury resulting from the inflammation of iliotibial band.

Lateral Patellar Compression Syndrome

Lateral patellar compression syndrome refers to pain under and around your kneecap.  It is a common complaint among runners, jumpers, and other athletes such as skiers, cyclists, and soccer players.

Osteochondritis Dissecans

Osteochondritis dissecans is a joint condition in which a piece of cartilage, along with a thin layer of the bone separates from the end of the bone because of inadequate blood supply.

Shin Splints

 “Shin splints” is used to describe the pain and inflammation of the tendons, muscles and bone tissue around the tibia or shine bone (a large bone in the lower leg).

Knee Injury

Pain, swelling and stiffness are the common symptoms of any damage or injury to the knee. If care is not taken during the initial phases of injury, it may lead to joint damage that may end up destroying your knee.

Unstable Knee

The knee joint is one of the largest joints in the body. This highly complex joint has several tissues supporting and stabilizing its movement. Damage to any of these supportive structures causes the instability of the knee joint.

Knee Sprain

Knee sprain is a common injury that occurs from overstretching of the ligaments that support the knee joint. A knee sprain occurs when the knee ligaments are twisted or turned beyond its normal range causing the ligaments to tear.

ACL Tears

An ACL injury is a sports related injury that occur when the knee is forcefully twisted or hyperextended. An ACL tear usually occurs with an abrupt directional change with the foot fixed on the ground or when the deceleration force crosses the knee.

MCL Tears

Medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury can result in a stretch, partial tear, or complete tear of the ligament. Injuries to the MCL commonly occur because of a pressure or stress on the outside part of the knee.

MCL Sprain

MCL sprains occur due to sudden impact from the outside of your knee, most commonly while playing sports such as rugby and football.

Meniscal Injuries

Meniscal tears are one among the common injuries to the knee joint. It can occur at any age, but are more common in athletes playing contact sports.

Meniscal Tears

Meniscus tear is the commonest knee injury in athletes, especially those involved in contact sports. A suddenly bend or twist in your knee cause the meniscus to tear.

Ligament Injuries

The knee is a complex joint which consists of bone, cartilage, ligaments and tendons that make joint movements easy and at the same time more susceptible to various kinds of injuries.

Multiligament Instability

An injury resulting in tear of one or more ligaments of the knee thus affects knee stability.  Such injuries occur because of direct blow to the knee, or a fall from a height, or motor vehicle trauma.

Patellar Dislocation/Patellofemoral Dislocation

Dislocation of the patella occurs when the patella moves out of the patellofemoral groove, (called as trochlea) onto a bony head of the femur.

PCL Injuries

Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), one of four major ligaments of the knee are situated at the back of the knee.

PCL injuries are very rare and are difficult to detect than other knee ligament injuries.

Chondral (Articular Cartilage Defects)

The damage in articular cartilage can affect people of all ages. It can be damaged by trauma such as accidents, mechanical injury such as a fall, or from degenerative joint disease (osteoarthritis) occurring in older people.

Patellar Instability

Patellar (knee cap) instability results from one or more dislocations or partial dislocations (subluxations).

Patellofemoral Instability

Patellofemoral instability means that the patella (kneecap) moves out of its normal pattern of alignment. This malalignment can damage the underlying soft structures such as muscles and ligaments that hold the knee in place.

Recurrent Patella Dislocation

Patellar dislocation occurs when the knee cap slides out of the trochlea. When dislocation of the patella occurs on more than one occasion, it is referred to as recurrent patellar dislocation.

Quadriceps Tendon Rupture

Quadriceps tendon rupture most commonly occurs in middle-aged people who participate in sports which involve jumping and running. Quadriceps tear occur by fall, direct blow to the leg and when you land on your leg awkwardly from a jump.

Patella Tendon Rupture

Patella tendon rupture is the rupture of the tendon that connects the patella (knee cap) to the top portion of the tibia (shin bone).

Lateral Meniscus Syndrome

Lateral meniscus syndrome often occurs due to excessive weight bearing and twisting motions to the knee. This occurs usually due to sports activities such as football, basketball and snow skiing, which require a lot of changes in directions and twisting movements.

Medial Meniscus Syndrome

Medial meniscal injuries are usually considered as either traumatic or degenerative. Of the menisci within the knee, it is the medial that is more easily injured.

Procedures

Biologics

Stem Cell Therapy

Stem cell therapy is a form of regenerative medicine that utilizes the body’s natural healing mechanism to treat various conditions.

PRP

PRP is a relatively new method of treatment for several orthopaedic conditions such as muscle, ligament, and tendon injuries; arthritis; and fractures.

Surgical Treatment

Cartilage Restoration

Patellar Tendon Repair

Patellar Tendon Repair is performed on an outpatient basis and not arthroscopically since the tendon is present outside the joint. The goal of the surgery is to reattach the torn tendon to knee cap and to restore the normal function in the affected leg.

Knee Ligament Reconstruction

Arthroscopic reconstruction of the knee ligament is a minimally invasive surgery performed through a few tiny incisions.

Cartilage Replacement

Cartilage replacement is a surgical procedure performed to replace the worn-out cartilage with the new cartilage. It is usually performed to treat patients with small areas of cartilage damage usually caused by sports or traumatic injuries.

Cartilage Repair & Transplantation

Cartilage repair is a surgical procedure where orthopaedic surgeons stimulate the growth of new cartilage that restores the normal function. Arthritis condition can be delayed or prevented through this procedure.

OATS

OATS is “osteochondral autograft transfer system”.  It is one of the two types of cartilage transfer procedures and the other procedure is “Mosaicplasty”.

Others

Autologus Chondrocyte Implantation

Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is a procedure to treat the articular cartilage defects of the knee.

Subchondroplasty

Subchondroplasty is a minimally invasive procedure that is performed to specifically repair chronic BMLs by filling them with a bone substitute material.

Meniscal Surgery

The surgical treatment options include meniscus removal (meniscectomy), meniscus repair, and meniscus replacement.

Limb Lengthening

Limb lengthening is a reconstructive procedure where the deformed bone is straightened or missing bone is replaced.